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Mocking the Unmockable in TypeScript and JavaScript

Yes, you can mock ES6 function exports! Here's how.

Created on June 28, 2022.


Consider the following scenario. You're using a package or module that directly exports functions, so you're unable to mock them. Let's presume this is the source code of one such function:

export function theirFunction(): string {
  return "";

We're using TypeScript in this example, but, if you remove the types, then you have ES6-compliant JavaScript.

Let's say your code uses theirFunction like so:

function yourFunction(): boolean {
  return "" === theirFunction();

We'll assume you must always depend on theirFunction returning an empty string, and maybe you want a test to fail if the output changes per an upgrade. You could directly test theirFunction, although you only care about its output changing in the context of yourFunction, not any others.

This may be an arbitrary example, but it has practical implications; after all, how do we mock theirFunction? It's immutable, so reassignment goes out the window, meaning that a conventional mocking library won't work here, at least not directly.


To solve this problem, I suggest making a loosely-coupled, mockable extension of the library encapsulating theirFunction. Consider creating a file like this:

import { theirFunction as theirUnmockableFunction } from "./..";

export default new (class {
  // ...

  theirFunction(): string {
    return theirUnmockableFunction();

  // ...

The exported anonymous class is effectively a singleton that we must now use as a stand-in for their library, as is the case in yourFunction:

import theirMockableLibrary from "./../theirMockableLibrary.ts";

function yourFunction(): boolean {
  return "" === theirMockableLibrary.theirFunction();

Congratulations, now your stubs and spies should work!

For example, with Deno, we could stub theirFunction in this way:

import yourLibrary from "./../yourLibrary.ts";
import theirMockableLibrary from "./../theirMockableLibrary.ts";

import { returnsNext, stub } from "https://deno.land/std/testing/mock.ts";

import { assertEquals } from "https://deno.land/std/testing/asserts.ts";

// ...

const theirFunctionStub = stub(
  returnsNext(["not an empty string!"]),

// This should fail (because the mocking works!):
assertEquals(yourLibrary.yourFunction(), true);


// ...


It's clear that there are two major downsides to this approach:

  1. All of the parameters of your mockable functions should be the same as those of the unmockable ones; you must also passthrough arguments appropriately.
  2. You must directly reference, via dot notation, the exported object of any mocked functions being called, whether in a test file or not. Fortunately, the flipside is that you may refer to the object by whatever name you like—probably not something unwieldly like theirMockableLibary.

Hopefully this steers you away from hacking your package cache or something. And consider submitting a pull request to improve the mockability of whichever library you're using. The maintainers may be willing to hear you out. Have fun!